UKRAINE NEEDS A NEW DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY for an industrial park. PART 2.
International experience has tested the time the positive impact of industrial parks on the economy, attracting new investments, regional development, increasing employment, as well as the rapid introduction of innovation. According to UNIDO (an international organization that deals with the development of a strategy for the economic development of countries with a transit economy), there are more than 15,000 industrial parks in the world. Modern IP provide an annual increase in macro indicators in many countries of the world.
We continue a special series of publications and today we highlight successful international experience.
The world’s largest industrial park with an area of ??43 thousand hectares was built in the USA. This is the Tahoe-Reno Industrial Center (TRIC). Tesla and Panasonic have built Gigafactory 1, the largest lithium-ion battery plant in it, in which they have invested about $ 5 billion. Other residents of the park include companies such as Google, Wal-Mart and Switch.
TRIC operates as a public-private partnership in which private owners have built the necessary infrastructure. At the same time, these infrastructure costs will be reimbursed by local authorities.
In Belarus, manufacturers in industrial parks can be exempted for ten years from corporate tax, property tax and land tax. For the next ten years, half the rate of these taxes is applied. Other incentives include exemption from import VAT and duties on equipment and components, a preferential rate on personal income tax (employees), social security benefits and exemption from the mandatory sale of foreign currency earnings.
Belarus in 2006. Created the High-Tech Park (HTP) innovation park. This park is conceived as a virtual one, so IT companies registered in any locality of Belarus can become its residents. In addition, the park also has a physical cluster with a business incubator and the necessary infrastructure to operate in Minsk.
HTP residents can be exempt from all corporate taxes, including value added tax, income tax, and customs duties. Individual income tax for employees of companies – residents of the park has a flat rate.
There are cases when preferential housing programs are offered for employees of companies that are HTP residents to prevent the outflow of personnel abroad: full or partial compensation for rental housing, construction of new housing on preferential terms, including mortgages.
In Poland, on the territory of more than 14 special economic zones (SEZ), there are more than 76 industrial and technological parks. The corresponding legislation regulating the activities of such zones was developed back in 1994. The first special economic zone in Poland was established in 1995. (Mielec SEZ). The prerequisites for its creation were: unemployment in the region at the level of 20% and a surplus of production assets of the reorganized company PZL Mielec. Already in 2001, this made it possible to create more than 5.6 thousand jobs. All other Polish FEZs were founded in the second half of the 1990s, which resulted in the country’s real GDP growing by 50% over the next 10 years, and exports almost tripling.
In Poland, manufacturers in industrial parks located in FEZs can receive exemption from corporate tax or personal income tax, partial exemption from property tax. In addition, in Poland there may be support for the creation of new jobs – the size depends on the project and can reach 15.6 thousand zloty (4 thousand US dollars) per job. It also supports training programs aimed at improving the qualifications of personnel – the maximum amount of compensation can reach 70%.
The Czech Republic introduced a state program for the development of industrial parks in 1998. Within 7 years, about a hundred industrial parks were created, investors have invested more than 9 billion euros in new production, created more than 70 thousand jobs.
In the Czech Republic, manufacturers in industrial parks under various programs can receive exemption from corporate tax for up to 10 years and 5 years of exemption from property tax.
In addition, the state can provide grants of up to CZK 300 thousand (USD 12 thousand) for the creation of a new workplace in the industrial park.
In 2002-2016. In Turkey, 284 industrial parks or so-called organized industrial zones have been established. During this period, industrial parks were created and operate in almost all regions of the country with different levels of economic development and are considered by investors as one of the most attractive for investment among other countries in the Middle East.
Industrial parks have become an important tool for attracting foreign direct investment (FDI) to Turkey. For the period 1995-2017. More than 80% of FDI in the country was concentrated in them. Now in the industrial parks of Turkey there are more than 45 thousand resident companies, have created about 900 thousand jobs. And in 2013 Turkey completely “paid off” its debt to the IMF. However, the Turkish authorities are further interested in the construction of industrial towns in various provinces of the country, which will contribute to economic growth.
Along with industrial parks, technology parks are successfully functioning in Turkey, the fundamental difference of which is the emphasis on supporting research and development work (R&D) in order to bring scientific ideas to the stage of industrial design and their further commercialization. This is achieved by the creation of business incubators on the territory of technoparks, in which the corresponding ideas in the field of high technologies go through all stages of development: from the idea to the mass production of competitive products in the world market.
Based on materials: unido.org; business.ua; nv.ua; zn.ua; dspace.tneu.edu.ua: Economic analysis: collection of articles. sciences. works – V. Galasyuk Industrial parks: world experience and prospects of creation in Ukraine.